Pulmonary disorders: causes, symptoms, lung cancer pleurisy

Lung disease: lung cancer causes and symptoms. In 2008 cancer was first cause of death in the Netherlands. Previously this was heart disease, said the grant according to the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). In men, lung cancer is the most common cancer, followed by prostate cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. What are the causes and symptoms of lung cancer and how can it be treated?
Lung disease: lung cancer causes and symptoms + pleuritis carcinomatosa
Incidence of lung cancer in the Netherlands
Non-small cell and small cell lung cancer
The main cause of lung cancer: cigarette smoking
Other causes of lung cancer
The signs and symptoms of lung cancer
Treatment of lung cancer
Survival rates for lung cancer
pleuritis carcinomatosa

Incidence of lung cancer in the Netherlands
The incidence (= number of new cases of lung cancer in one year) of lung cancer was 0.76 per 1,000 men and 0.35 per 1,000 women. In absolute numbers were given in 2003 6.126 2.888 men and women, lung cancer. In individuals under 30 years lung cancer is sporadic. After that incidence rises rapidly with age years.

Non-small cell and small cell lung cancer
Lung cancer is usually divided into two major groups or types, which account for about 95% of all cases. The classification is based on the main features of the cells. There is a distinction between small cell and non-small cell form of lung cancer. The non-small cell form of lung cancer in contrast to the small cell type, rather large cells. This classification also says something about the growth of the tumor and the speed with which this tumor metastasis (meta-opt) the body. Both forms contain different subtypes of tumors.

Small cell lung cancer is less common and is growing faster and has greater risk of metastasis than non-small cell lung cancer. Often small cell lung cancer has already spread to other parts of the body where the cancer is diagnosed.

About 5% of lung cancers are of rare cell types, including carcinoid tumor (a rare and slow-growing malignant tumors), lymphoma (a cancer based on the lymphocytes, a type of cell of the immune system), and others.

The main specific types of primary lung cancer are as follows:
Adenocarcinoma, a form of non-small cell lung cancer that originates in glandular tissue, is the most common form of lung cancer. It represents 30% -40% of all cases.
Squamous cell carcinoma, a form of non-small cell lung cancer, squamous cell assuming a cell in the epithelium, which is the tissue that covers organs and other tissues, is the second most common form of lung cancer. This form constitutes about 30% of all lung cancers from.

The main cause of lung cancer: cigarette smoking
Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer. About 90% of lung cancer occurs as a result of tobacco use. Cigarette smoke contains over 4,000 chemicals, many of which have been identified as causing cancer. A person who more than a pack of cigarettes per day, has a 20 to 25 times greater risk of developing lung cancer than someone who never touched a cigarette. The risk for getting lung cancer for a person who, for 20 years two packs of cigarettes per day, even 60 to 70 times higher than for someone who never smoked. (1) When a person stops smoking, the risk of lung cancer gradually decreases. Approximately 15 years after expressing the last cigarette, the risk of lung cancer drops to the level of someone who never smoked. The risks are related to the number of cigarettes they smoke, the age at which someone starts smoking and the duration that a person smokes or has smoked since he stopped it.

Other causes of lung cancer
Other causes of lung cancer are:
passive smoking or secondhand smoke;
air pollution from motor vehicles, factories and other sources may increase the risk of lung cancer;
exposure to asbestos increases the risk of lung cancer by a factor of nine;
lung diseases such as tuberculosis (TB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - COPD), also increase the risk of lung cancer;
exposure to radon (a radioactive noble gas that can not see, smell or taste and released from building materials and the soil) is another risk. (2)
certain occupations where long-term exposure to arsenic, chromium, nickel, aromatic hydrocarbons and ethers, can increase the risk of lung cancer.
a person who has undergone lung cancer, is more likely for a second lung cancer than the average person has a chance for the first time lung cancer.

The signs and symptoms of lung cancer
Up to one quarter of all people with lung cancer show no symptoms when the cancer is found. In such cases the tumor is often found by chance, although afterwards, in some cases a little vague, general symptoms are designated as not fully fit and malaise, decreased appetite, and sometimes also slimming (weight loss). The symptoms of lung cancer can vary and also depend on the location and size of the tumor and any spread (metastasis). Lung cancer usually spreads to the liver, adrenal glands, bones and brains.

Symptoms of primary lung cancer are cough, a cough pattern changes, coughing up blood, chest pain (chest pain), recurrent respiratory infections, including pneumonia (see below) and (increased) breathlessness. In metastases may occur elsewhere in the body pain.

A brief discussion of the symptoms:
Each new cough in a smoker or an ex-smoker may indicate lung cancer.
A cough that persists or worsens over time, the doctor must be submitted.
Coughing up blood (haemoptysis or hemoptysis) occurs in a significant number of people who develop lung cancer. Coughing up blood may be due to the vigorous coughing and that is not alarming. It can also be a sign a serious illness or disease, including lung cancer.
Approximately one quarter of people with lung cancer chest pain. The pain is dull and persistent.
Shortness of breath may indicate a spread of the tumor in the lung.
Wheezing or hoarseness may signal an infection in the lungs caused by the cancer.
Repeated respiratory infections such as bronchitis or pneumonia, may be a sign of lung cancer.

Treatment of lung cancer
The treatment is used, also depends on the location and size of the tumor and any metastases to the condition of the patient. Treatment options for lung cancer include surgery (surgery), chemotherapy and radiation (radiotherapy).

At surgery, the tumor with the surrounding lung tissue is removed. In radiotherapy the tumor and adjacent lymph nodes or radiation therapy to try to achieve healing (curative) or to reduce symptoms (palliative). Chemotherapy means treatment with cell-killing drugs. This can be used when the disease has already spread (palliative) or in combination with other treatment modalities such as:
chemotherapy followed by surgery;
chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy, or
surgery followed by radiotherapy.

Survival rates for lung cancer
In general - thus including all types and stages of lung cancer - is a five-year survival of approximately 13%. For the five year relative survival in non-small cell and small cell lung cancer, see figure (click to enlarge).

pleuritis carcinomatosa
Pleurisy, an inflammation of the pleura (pleural or pleural). There are two membranes surrounding the lung, a pleural, and pleura. In between is a little moisture, so that the respiratory membranes to slide easily over one another. Pleurisy can be caused by a viral infection like flu which affects the pleura. Often this condition is a reaction to damage to the lungs just under the pleura, caused by pneumonia or pulmonary embolism. The pleura may also be affected by lung cancer or metastatic cancer elsewhere in the body and in that case it is called pleuritis carcinomatosa. This is a highly malignant disease from the lung membranes, whereby tumor cells are the membranes. The cells may arrive there via the bloodstream from a tumor in the lung or from other organs. This process is called metastasis or meta consumption.

The most characteristic symptom of pleurisy is pain in the chest. This can occur if a superficial discomfort but it can also be a severe stabbing pain. The pain is always present or only occur with deep breathing or coughing may occur. Sometimes there is pain radiation to the abdomen, neck or shoulder. Other symptoms include rapid and shallow breathing, reduced mobility of the muscles on the painful side and breathing difficulties, feel that breathing is difficult.

Pneumonia symptoms (pneunomie)
Lungs (pneumonia) is an inflammation of the alveoli and the surrounding tissue. Pneumonia usually occurs after infection with a bacterium or virus and is often the result of a cold or flu. It is important that the disease is recognized early, since longblaasje greatly affected be causing the lung volume becomes smaller. This can lead to death. What are the characteristics and symptoms of pneumonia?
cough a lot and giving up mucus, sometimes rust-colored or bloody.
high fever, chills, delirium - that's a sudden confusion.
shortness of breath, rapid shallow breathing, at rest.
chest pain that gets worse with (deep) breathing.
malaise: fatigue, listlessness, sticky / sweats, muscle aches, decreased appetite, headache.
cyanosis: blue lips and / or face and fingers (under the nails).

With pneumonia by organisms, but not by bacteria, are less specific symptoms and the symptoms will gradually appear. Click here to continue reading article on pneumonia.